عنوان مقاله [English]
Seismic evaluation of concrete dams due to some considerations is very important. The effects of fluid-structure-foundation interaction, nonlinear behavior of dam material due to crack, and earthquake loading are some of these considerations and should be considered in modeling and analysis of the system.The nonlinear seismic response of concrete gravity dams is presented when the effect of the dam-reservoir interaction is included using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach of the finite element method. Nonlinear fracture mechanics, based on the smeared crack concepts, is used to study the cracking profile and response of the dam. In this study, a comparative study between the coaxial rotating crack model and orthogonal multi-fixed smeared crack models is carried out. Based on the presented formulation, Pine Flat concrete gravity dam is analyzed and its crest response and stresses within the dam body are founded. Bosak's time integration and corrected Newton-Raphson method are used for solving nonlinear dynamic equations.Results show that the two crack approaches have negligible difference in terms of the number of cracked gauss points and the crack profile. Tensile principal stresses based on fixed crack concept are greater than those of the rotating crack concept, but for compressive principal stresses the results are vice versa. The differences are due to unloading-reloading path and shear retention factor, but crack propagating path remains the same. Displacements of dam crest in nonlinear cases are greater than those of linear ones and show the same result in two crack models. This phenomenon depended on internal damping of system in both linear and nonlinear cases. Permanent displacement of dam crest based on fixed crack concept is greater than that of the rotating crack concept, and this phenomenon depends on cracking intensity of dam body. Results show that the fixed crack concept have better convergence than that of the rotating crack concept and the number of iterations in the time steps are low.