عنوان مقاله [English]
Before underground excavation, appropriate information is available to determine construction requirements and maintanance systems. However, this sort of information is not enough and the excavation is likely to encounter unpredictable damage. Resulted damage may inflict irreparable losses on installation and residential zones, in addition to disturbances in the exploitation systems. So, examining different parts and, Especifically, controlling
states of stress and deformation will considerably prevent disasters. Different methods of determining face pressure are evaluated. Plaxis-3D software is applied to measure the face pressure and the resulted settlement and heave on the ground surface are discussed in this paper. For this purpose, the Esfahan subway information
is used as a case study.