عنوان مقاله [English]
Cement industry is of particular importance in construction industry. However, such industry's survive is dependent on water consumption. Iran is located on a dry region so investigating water consumption in Iranian cement industry and providing solutions for water crisis of such industry is of high interest among cement industry practitioners. Few studies have looked at virtual water consumption and water footprint of cement industry in Iran and all of the word. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. It proposes a comprehensive model for evaluating water footprint in cement industry based on the type of energy consumption, transportation and human effect using a system boundary analysis. The relationship between water footprint and energy consumption is highlighted and solutions for the water consumption problem in cement industry is provided. To demonstrate the application of the proposed method a cement manufacturer located on western Iran as a case study is analyzed. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the effects of considered parameters on the proposed water footprint model. The paper shows that the total water footprint in the selected cement manufacturer accounts for 3614×103 m3 in 2017 highlighting a high contribution of the cement industry in water consumption and risk of surviving cement industry in dry regions. The paper also shows that in the selected cement manufacturer virtual water footprint is estimated to be 11 times more that direct water consumption which contributes to 90 percent of the total water footprint. In addition, the paper demonstrates that water consumption intensity in the selected case study is estimated to be 2.126 m3 per each ton of cement produced while direct water consumption for each ton of cement is estimated to be 0.2 m3. The paper findings cast a new insight into water consumption of the cement industry wider than currently available. This paper contributes to producing environmentally friendly cement in Iran and all of the world.