عنوان مقاله [English]
Strong ground motion during an earthquake is one of the most important effects that engineers have to face. Hence, achieving a prospected performance during and after an event is necessary. Since present seismic design codes are not proper enough in near-fault conditions, an appropriate design procedure (like proper design spectra) is strongly needed. In near-fault, not only forward directivity is important, but, also, because of less attenuation, strong ground motion has much more energy.