عنوان مقاله [English]
Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls (MSEW) and Reinforced Soil Slopes (RSS) are known as cost-effective soil-retaining structures. By inclusion of tensile reinforcing elements in the soil, its strength can be improved significantly, such that the vertical face of the soil/ reinforcement system is essentially self supporting. The actual bid cost of a specific MSE/RSS structure depends on the cost of each of its principal components. Different methods of analysis differ in their assumptions regarding stress distribution, failure surfaces, safety factors and the inclination of the reinforcement at the failure surface. This study uses a limiting equilibrium analysis to determine the factor of safety against failure. This paper couples a complete MSE wall design routine with a highly efficient optimization model for the optimum design of mechanically stabilized earth walls. The design algorithm benefits from a limit equilibrium technique to calculate the external and internal stability of the wall, considering common safety factors. The optimization model uses an advanced version of the PSO algorithm to search for optimum combination of the design variables to satisfy the required safety factors. Integration of simulation optimization approaches for the optimum design of MSE walls with particle swarm optimization, is the first of its kind; having been overlooked in the literature.