عنوان مقاله [English]
Water hammer is one of the destructive hydrodynamic phenomena which established in most pumping stations, transmission lines and hydroelectric power plants. Fluid distribution systems and hydropower plants can be severely damaged by water hammer. Water hammer is the forceful slam, bang, or shudder that occurs in pipes when a sudden change in fluid velocity creates a significant change in fluid pressure. Since this phenomenon can force destructive effects on transmission lines and hydroelectric power plants (Turbines and pipelines), so it is essential to investigate the influence of water hammer (positive and negative pressure waves) along the transmission lines. One of the methods to reduce the effect of water hammer effects is to establish a surge tank in hydraulic pipelines. Surge problems are encountered in connection with unsteady state of flow of fluids in pipelines. In general a surge tank is designed to reduce the distance between the free water surface and turbine thereby reducing the water hammer effects on penstock and also protect upstream tunnel from high pressure rises. The other function is to serve as a supply tank to the turbine when the water in pipe is accelerating during increased load conditions and as a storage tank when the water is decelerating during reduced load conditions. In the present study, while describing the performance of different surge tanks and their role in adjustment the negative and positive pressures in transmission lines of hydroelectric power, two types of surge tanks (i.e., simple and differential) are selected and investigated their action on variations of flow pressure and velocity along the pipe lines. Also, regarding to the economic considerations, the dimensions of surge tanks have been optimized. Finding the optima position of tanks according the oscillations of water surface is another evaluated of items in present study. For analyzing the equations by finite difference technique, discretization of equations has been conducted in Matlab. The results revealed that the differential surge tanks are more efficient and economical than simple ones up to 40%. Also the half of transmission length at upstream of turbines are determined as the optima position of surge tanks.