عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study, a performance-based optimal design of moment frames is presented based on target roof displacement criteria. Four performance Levels defined by four roof target displacements are considered and moment frame has subjected to constant gravity loads and incrementally lateral loads until meet the end roof displacement. In each performance target displacement, hinge rotations, inter-story drifts and internal forces have controlled in accordance with provisions. Because axial force has decreasing influence on plastic moment capacity, magnitude of column axial forces is needed before pushover analysis for modeling column hinges. To solve this problem, an approximate pushover analysis without considering axial forces for column hinges performed to calculate column forces in the final target displacement. Then final pushover analysis executed by considering influence of calculated axial forces in plastic hinges. This pushover analysis and defined constraints only guarantee ductility criteria for the structure until now. To ensure that structure has enough strength, before pushover analysis it has checked for enough strength by gravity load combination and allowable vertical deflection of beams under service loads. To avoid other undesirable mechanisms like soft and hard story or weak column- strong beam, other equations considered as target function and constraint respectively. The proposed pushover analysis has modeled with joining two springs and an elastic element so that moment-rotation parameters introduced as a material to the springs based on FEMA 356 tables. For all models and analysis, OpenSees finite element software utilized in such a way that all text codes write and run in Matlab without opening OpenSees directly. When completed all analysis and calculated all constraints and target functions; cost function assigns a grade to the suggested structure using weight and penalties for violated constraints and this cycle continues for other structures. Two meta-heuristics, gray wolf optimization (GWO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are utilized for optimization. Proposed analyse is illustrated for a three story four bay and a nine story five bay building frame work examples.