عنوان مقاله [English]
Deep excavations in soft clay soils can cause excessive ground settlement and wall movements due to creep in soft soils. One of the most commonly used methods for predicting these displacements is the numerical methods such as the finite element method that according to, wall deflections in deep excavation is estimate. However, in most modeling for soft clay soils, soil behavior models are considered time independent. So, the excavation time and creep in soft soils is ignored. In this paper, the effect of considering the excavation activities time and creep effect that occurred in soft soils in the horizontal wall displacement had been investigated with three case studies. There were soft soil layers with creeping behavior in all of them. Projects were done with Soil Anchorage combination with a soil nailing methods. For examining the time effect and creep in soft clay soils in the wall movements with numerical modeling, they were modeled with three different behavioral models included Mohr-coulomb, Hardening soil and soft soil creep models. With using of the instruments that installed in the excavation wall and recording the horizontal displacements, one can see a more accurate and comprehensive view of the project soil behavior and also the prediction of the wall movement in the same situation. Finally, numerical modeling results were compared with the actual wall deflection that measured for their projects. The results show that if the excavation activities time and creeping behavior model is considered in numerical modeling; wall movement would be better match compare to time independent behavioral models with monitoring data. The Mohr-coulomb and Hardening soil models considered instantaneously horizontal deflection occurred in walls and don’t make difference between of the activities time. Also creep in soft soils in these models don’t considered. As, the answers given to them, especially in the end of the excavation, had a significant difference with the actual deformation.