عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, ample attention has been paid to the use of BRT in Tehran. Development of such systems is in need of proper assessment of effectiveness on air pollution reduction, as well as traffic. In the resent nvestigation, the role of BRT on the environment and socio-economic aspects has been assessed in the route between Parkway and Tajrish square. The research has been carried out at two stages of pre and post utilization, and is truly based on field measurements as well as questionnaires. Results of the present investigation showed that the most prominent effect is on social aspects, due to the reduction in social costs that occurs due to the lower emission of air pollutants, as well as lower fuel consumption. The profits of this cost reduction can be used in corrective measures, such as the construction of sound barriers.To evaluate the effects of BRT, we have tried to assess such effects on the physical, biological, social, economical and cultural environment. It should be noted that the highest adverse impact is found on the physical environment, which arises from air quality, as well as noise pollution. The adverse effects on the biological environment are too minimal and insignificant, since there are virtually no important biological units in the area of study. The highest positive impact of BRT can be seen on the social environment, which is mainly associated with elements such as safety and hygiene. In general, the results of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) are indicative of the positive effects of BRT on various environments, along with the route, in the area of study.It is interesting to note that external costs, including social and environmental costs, were reduced by about US\$ 165000 per year. The reduction in gasoil consumption is around 682 thousand liters per year, with a value of US\$ 434000. The result of the present investigation clearly shows that the benefits and effectiveness of BRT can further be promoted by some simple measures. These include a reduction of noise along the roadside using appropriate barriers. The increase in the number of buses, along with better hygiene aspects, will lead to more convenience for passengers. There is no doubt that the satisfaction of shopkeepers can be achieved by provision of some reduction in taxes or a reduction in the price of energy or water bills. Though the lower income population has a better reason for using BRT, it should be noted that about \%13 of BRTs passengers are those who have preferred to leave aside their personal cars once the BRT line has been fully in operation.